US and Europe clash over global supersonic jet noise

Fifteen years after Concorde

A U.S. push for new global standards to kickstart its fledgling supersonic jet industry is facing resistance by European nations that want tough rules on noise, according to documents and people familiar with the situation.

Fifteen years after Concorde’s last flight, U.S. regulators are weighing rule changes to allow testing of early-stage supersonic jets, amid plans for American-made business and small passenger jets due in service by the mid-2020s.

But the new industry could face delays at the United Nations aviation agency where the United States and European countries – including France, Germany and Britain – are squaring off over new noise rules needed for the jets to fly, five sources told Reuters, speaking about confidential talks on condition of anonymity.

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Fifteen years after Concorde’s last flight, U.S. regulators are weighing rule changes to allow testing of early-stage supersonic jets, amid plans for American-made business and small passenger jets due in service by the mid-2020s. Pictured, the Aerion AS2, the world’s first supersonic business jet, being developed by Lockheed Martin Corp partnering with plane maker Aerion Corp of Reno

The previously unreported dispute follows a 1990s clash on noise standards, when the European Union wanted to ban noisy older U.S.-made jets like the Boeing 727 from its airports and Washington threatened to retaliate by banning the Anglo-French Concorde.

This latest round pits U.S. ambitions for an American-led revival of supersonic jets by start-ups Aerion Supersonic, Boom Supersonic and Spike Aerospace against European fears of disruptive noise from the planes. Aerion, backed by Lockheed Martin Corp and GE, is considered by industry sources as the most advanced of the supersonic projects.


U.S. companies aspiring to revive supersonic jet travel in the wake of Europe’s Concorde have built a business case around faster speeds for high-paying travelers, but face the challenge of reining in noise and emissions to meet new standards.

Japan Airlines Co Ltd and Virgin Group are backing one of the three U.S. supersonic projects, Denver-based Boom Technology Inc, which plans a 55-seat all business class jet.

Lockheed Martin Corp is partnering with Aerion Corp to develop smaller supersonic business jets. 

Spike Aerospace Inc also targeting the private jet market given many see the super-rich as the likeliest early adopters of supersonic travel.



List price: $120 million 

12-seat business jet 

Cruise speed: Mach 1.4 

Max range: 4,200 nautical miles

Engine: GE core used by F-16s and 737s 

Entry into service target: Early 2026 

Flight times from London to New York could be slashed to just 3 hours 15 minutes by 2025, if plans revealed by Boom Supersonic go ahead. Pictured are concept images of the full-sized, 55-seater aircraft, alongside the XB-1 mini version that will begin testing next year


List price: $200 million 

55-seat commercial jet 

Cruise speed: Mach 2.2 

Max range: 4,500 nautical miles

Engine: Not yet selected 

Entry into service target: Mid-2020s 




List price: $100 million 

18-seat business jet

Cruise speed: Mach 1.6

Max range: 6,200 nautical miles 

Engine: Not yet selected

Entry into service target: Mid-2020s 



Boom will be making its first appearance at the Farnborough Airshow next week as it looks to cement the revival of the supersonic industry, which is struggling to design jets that meet current subsonic noise standards due to engine constraints.

‘The politics are that Europe is way more worried about noise (around airports),’ said an industry source familiar with the matter. ‘Europe has a problem but they have no reason to solve (it) because they have no industry pushing for this.’

That’s a reversal of disputes which delayed the beginning of Concorde’s transatlantic services in the 1970s, as first the U.S. Congress and then the New York Port Authority banned it due to noise. 

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has banned supersonic flights over U.S. land since 1973.

For now, the new jets plan to stick to over-water routes, though the FAA will eventually decide whether to allow overland flights after analyzing data from NASA in a study by 2025. An FAA spokesman couldn’t immediately comment.

Both Boeing and Airbus have mapped out futuristic visions for ultra-fast air travel.

But since the demise of Boeing’s planned near-supersonic Sonic Cruiser in 2002, the world’s two largest planemakers have focused on slower, fuel-efficient planes that allow airlines to lower ticket prices.

Now, U.S. startups are working to develop quieter and more fuel-efficient supersonic planes than Concorde, aimed at business travelers. 

They claim these can be economically viable with the right engine. They also pledge to dampen the famous sonic boom which depressed Concorde’s sales and restricted its operations until it was grounded for economic reasons in 2003.

The United Nations’ Montreal-based International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), which sets many global standards, has started looking at supersonic jets by seeking technical information from planemakers.

ICAO will then be in a better position to assess options for standards on noise and emissions, and ‘how long the process should take,’ a spokesman said.

The European countries think current noise limits should be used as ‘guidelines’ for developing landing and take-off rules, according to a document presented to a recent ICAO committee meeting and seen by Reuters.

The United States, echoing industry’s demand, has called for new standards that reflect ‘fundamental differences’ between subsonic and supersonic jets, according to a second document.

‘Supersonic aircraft are different from subsonic aircraft and need to be treated as such,’ said Mike Hinderberger, Aerion senior vice president of aircraft development at an industry conference last month. ‘You can’t try to shoehorn a supersonic aircraft into a subsonic standard.’

Aerion declined to comment further.

It’s not yet clear how other countries see supersonics or whether ICAO could craft a compromise.

Lengthy delays by ICAO would likely force planemakers to hold off, or risk investing millions in a design that ‘no one will certify,’ said a U.S. industry source.

‘It’s a chicken and egg argument,’ added the first industry source. ‘How can you bring a plane to market if you don’t have the standards to meet?’


Nasa is developing a 1,100mph (1,770kph) aircraft that has been dubbed the ‘son of Concorde’.

The vehicle is the first in a series of aircraft Nasa is developing with Lockheed Martin in a quest to build a commercially viable supersonic jet.

It is designed to fly at Mach 1.4 (1,100mph / 1,700 kph) at an altitude of 55,000 feet (10 miles).

Dubbed the X-59 Quiet Supersonic Transport (QueSST), the research craft aims to cut out the sonic booms associated with supersonic travel.

LBFD aims to cut out the noisy sonic booms that echoed above cities in the era of Concorde, while travelling at speeds of 1,100mph (Mach 1.4 / 1,700 km/h). Pictured is an concept design of the Quiet Supersonic Transport (QueSST) low-boom flight demonstrator (LBFD)

Pictured is an artist’s impression of the Quiet Supersonic Transport (QueSST) low-boom flight demonstrator (LBFD)

The aircraft is shaped to separate the shocks and expansions associated with supersonic flight to reduce the volume of the shaped signature, and was developed by Lockheed’s Skunk Works over 20 years.

The team is hoping to achieve a sonic boom 60 dBA lower than other supersonic aircraft, such as Concorde.

Recent research has shown it is possible for a supersonic airplane to be shaped in such a way that the shock waves it forms when flying faster than the speed of sound can generate a sound at ground level so quiet it will hardly will be noticed by the public, if at all.

The United States has urged ICAO to ‘move forward expeditiously’ on new standards, according to a document reviewed by Reuters.

‘The sooner the agencies finalize guidelines and standards, the sooner we can ensure our design meets those requirements,’ said Vik Kachoria, CEO of Boston-based Spike Aerospace, which hopes to select an engine for its jet early next year.

The European nations, however, are seeking robust data. In a separate document on emissions, they said they do not expect new standards ‘before 2025 or later’ because of insufficient data.

Boom CEO Blake Scholl said he had faith that the international community would ultimate reach agreement on supersonic noise standards, due in part to customer demand to get to destinations faster. 

‘Supersonic flight will be a critical driver of human progress, and we believe Europe’s citizens will embrace it,’ he said. ‘We know noise is a sensitive issue, and we are designing with that in mind.’


Concorde was a turbojet-powered supersonic passenger jet that was operated until 2003. 

It had a maximum speed over twice the speed of sound at Mach 2.04 (1,354mph or 2,180k per hour at cruise altitude) and could seat 92 to 128 passengers.

It was first flown in 1969, but needed further tests to establish it as viable as a commercial aircraft.

Concorde was a turbojet-powered supersonic passenger jet that was operated until 2003. It had a maximum speed over twice the speed of sound at Mach 2.04 and could seat 92 to 128 passengers 

Concorde was a turbojet-powered supersonic passenger jet that was operated until 2003. It had a maximum speed over twice the speed of sound at Mach 2.04 and could seat 92 to 128 passengers 

Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued flying for the next 27 years.

It is one of only two supersonic transports to have been operated commercially. 

The other is the Soviet-built Tupolev Tu-144, which ran for a much shorter period of time before it was grounded and retired due to safety and budget issues.

Concorde was jointly developed and manufactured by Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) under an Anglo-French treaty. Concorde’s name, meaning harmony or union, reflects the cooperation on the project between the United Kingdom and France. 

In the UK, any or all of the type are known simply as ‘Concorde’, without an article. 

Twenty aircraft were built including six prototypes and development aircraft.

Air France (AF) and British Airways (BA) each received seven aircraft. The research and development failed to make a profit and the two airlines bought the aircraft at a huge discount.

Concorde was retired in 2003 due to a general downturn in the commercial aviation industry after the type’s only crash in 2000, the September 11 attacks in 2001, and a decision by Airbus, the successor to Aérospatiale and BAC, to discontinue maintenance support.

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